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Page 12 - Hudson & Manhattan / Port Authority Trans Hudson (PATH)
The Catalog of Transit Fiscal Ephemera & Exonumia from the City of the New York
(pre-Metrocard)
featuring the collections of George S. Cuhaj & Philip M. Goldstein

Page 12

 



The Hudson & Manhattan Railroad - A Brief History



   The Hudson & Manhattan Railroad (Hudson Tubes) predates the New York City Subway. Originally planned in 1873, technology for boring of the tunnels under the Hudson River did not yet exist. Construction on the tunnels began in 1883 and lasted until 1890, when finances were exhausted. Construction would resume in 1900 until completion.

   With the tunnels completed by 1906, stations, lighting and finishing work was at a stage to allow non-revenue test trains in late 1907. Revenue service officially commenced at midnight on February 26, 1908; with President Theodore Roosevelt pressing a button in the White House that turned on the electricity in the uptown tubes. This was strictly symbolic as a train carrying passengers and officials had run the previous day.

   This map shows the routes in service (solid red lines) and the anticipated extensions of 1912 (dashed red lines) (which never came to fruition):


courtesy of Columbia University Digital Collection

   Several route extensions quickly followed, along with passenger connections to the New York Subway System. After several decades of service, ridership reached a record setting milestone of 113,000,000 million passengers in 1927.

   Thereafter ridership began to fall: the Holland Tunnel was opened that same year and the convenience of direct automobile travel into or off of Manhattan had begun (Prior to this, a ferry ride would be required). Successive Hudson River crossings compounded the decline in passengers, with the opening of the George Washington Bridge (1931), the Lincoln Tunnel (1937) drew even more ridership away from the the H&M.


   In December 1937 the 28th Street was closed due to it's proximity to the 33rd Street station.

   This map shows the routes and stations in service at 1947:


courtesy of Columbia University Digital Collection


   In August 1954, another station was closed: 19th Street and
ownership of the H&M entered receivership, and operations were conducted under bankruptcy protection.

   By the early 1960's, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which operated the Hudson River vehicular crossings was planning to construct the the World Trade Center. (History continued in the PATH chapter)




Fare Collection

   The H&M used a different system of fare tariffs, a tier based system based on the destination of the passenger than that of the New York City Transit Authority; in opposition to where one flat fare allowed you to go anywhere the New York City subway (and the exception to this was the Rockaways which was a double fare until 1975).
   
   The reason for this tiered system of fares was because it was nearly impossible to determine the final stop of a passenger without a conductor. Furthermore, an unscrupulous passenger could say to a ticket clerk at time of purchase, "I'm going to get off at Journal Square", and then go to Manhattan instead. As the stations were close together in New Jersey as well as Manhattan, there was insufficient time for a conductor to to have collected tickets from each passenger on the train.

   So the prepayment of the full fare for the maximum distance was the answer, and then the issuance of a refund coupon for those passengers not going the full distance ensured no passenger went further than they were supposed to, as well as ensured no passenger was overcharged for a non-interstate trip.

   The tier based system, also charged an additional fare for traveling north of Christopher Street on the Sixth Avenue segment.

   So to recap (and if I understand this correctly):
   To make matters more complicated, there were two different fares based on direction of travel in Manhattan: going uptown cost more that going downtown, and when the H&M RR line was extended to Newark Penn Station, the fare to or from Newark - Penn Station regardless of destination or origin point was a flat 40 cents, as service was shared with the Pennsylvania Railroad.



Fare History

Fares were prepaid for maximum rate of fare, with refund coupons for shorter distances traveled.

Hudson & Manhattan Railroad
1908
December 24, 1911All passengers prepaid 7¢ and received 5¢ and 2¢ tickets:
Fare: 5
¢ between NJ and Hudson Terminal, NY or 7¢ cents between NJ and 33rd Street Terminal, NY
For northbound travel:
a passenger received a 2¢ refund coupon if passenger did not go farther than Christopher Street, NY on northbound travel from New Jersey;
For southbound travel from 33rd Street, NY, passenger received a 5
¢ refund coupon if they did not go farther than Christopher Street, NY
19192¢ in Manhattan
19205¢ and 1¢
19215¢ and 1¢
1925 6¢ from Journal Square, NJ to downtown Hudson Terminal, NY or
10
¢ from Journal Square, NJ to uptown 33rd Street Terminal, NY
1
¢ refund if passenger boards and alights in NJ
1927 downtown direction
1927 uptown direction10¢
July 25, 1938 downtown direction
July 25, 1938 uptown direction10¢ - 2¢ upon leaving
June 26 through November 26, 194610¢ single ride or 9¢ with 11 tokens purchased for $1 and
5
¢ refund coupon for intrastate travel only**
November 26, 1946flat 10¢ fare instituted
April 1950ICC grants a 5¢ interstate fare increase to 15¢.
December 13, 195120¢



Port Authority Trans Hudson
? to January 29, 196240¢ interstate from Newark Penn Station, NJ to Manhattan, NY
25¢ interstate from Jersey City / Hoboken, NJ to Manhattan, NY

15¢ intrastate in New Jersey
January 30, 196240¢ interstate from Newark Penn Station, NJ to Manhattan, NY
30¢ interstate from Jersey City / Hoboken, NJ to Manhattan, NY
20¢ intrastate in Manhattan
15¢ intrastate in New Jersey
196730¢ interstate from Newark or Journal Square, NJ to Manhattan, NY
30¢ intrastate -
system now completely flat rate
November 8, 1971tokens removed from service, reverted back to all cash system
July 29, 197350¢
January 2001$1.00
2002 $1.50
2008$2.00
October 1, 2014 and currently $2.75 (not include discounted bulk fare cards)
** The refund coupon was redeemed upon exit from a New Jersey station, if the passenger had boarded in New Jersey; or at a New York station, if the passenger had boarded in New York.

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Hudson & Manhattan Tokens

   Please note; Hudson & Manhattan Railroad tokens were ordered without a mandate to have the "H" oriented properly with the rim legend, thus a collector can find them in nearly every rotation.


   The following information was originally published in the "The Fare Box", (the newsletter of the American Vecturist Association) by Albert Field, a long time member of the AVA. In this article, he relates the following:

H&M: two regular use tokens, three others because of the special problem. The token entitles a passenger to ride as far as Journal Square (Jersey City). If you go on to Newark, a ticket is needed, which is collected between those two points. During rush hours an agent stands by the turnstiles, and those with tickets go through a special gate. During after hours and holidays and as no agent is posted at the gate, a token is used to let ticket passengers through the turnstile.

  • From June 26 through November 26, 1946  - tokens were 11 for $1.00 and NY630AJ 16mm cadmium plated was used. During this period ticketed passengers used these same tokens.
  • From November 26, 1946 through March 19, 1950  - the fare was a straight 10 cents and the ticketed passengers used the hub token, NY630AL.
  • From March 19, 1950 to December 13, 1951  - the fare was 15 cents and NY630AH was used.  Ticketed passengers used the solid brass token, NY630AI.
  • On December 13, 1951 -  the fare was raised to 20 cents. The regular token has been brass plated: NY630AK. Ticketed passengers use the same brass token.

   The tokens for ticketed passengers were not sold to passengers, they were to be used by them to pass the turnstile and remained at all times the property of the company.
And true to form, these should be Journal Square (Jersey City) tokens not NYC listings as that is where they were used, but as the H&M has their headquarters in New York City, they are attributed to Manhattan.



Hudson & Manhattan Railroad: 1907 - 1962
reverse same as obverseJune 26, 1946 through November 26, 1946 - 9 cents (11 tokens for $1.00) (all passengers)

16mm, copper (cadmium?) plated, H cut out
Atwood-Coffee 
NY630AJ

November 26, 1946 through March 19, 1950 - 10 cents (ticketed passengers only)

18mm, bronze, hub token - 9mm hub, 5mm hole
Atwood-Coffee 
NY630AL

reverse same as obverseMarch 19, 1950 to December 13, 1951 - 15 cents (unticketed passengers)

16mm, copper nickel, H cut out
Atwood-Coffee 
NY630AH
These two tokens (the one above  and the one below ) were used concurrently.
reverse same as obverseMarch 19, 1950 to December 13, 1951 - 15 cents (ticketed passengers only)

16mm, brass, solid
Atwood-Coffee 
NY630AI

reverse same as obverseDecember 13, 1951 - 20 cents (all passengers)

16mm, brass plated, H cut out
Atwood-Coffee 
NY630AK



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Hudson & Manhattan Tickets
Daily Tickets
2 Cent - 1908-1921
33rd Street, Manhattan, NY
Rand McNally
2" x 1"
5 cent - 1908-1921
Hoboken, NJ
Rand McNally
2" x 1"
.

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.....intentionally left blankintentionally left blank
5 cent - 1908-1921
US Government
Rand McNally
2" x 1"
.

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15 Day Excursion
Church Street Station, Manhattan, NY - August 29, ???? (1917-1920)
United States Railroad Administration - during World War I
K. B. Conger, General Manager
Rand McNally
2 3/4" x 1 7/8"
Church Street Station, Manhattan, NY - May 24, 1927
Oren Root, President
Rand McNally
2 3/4" x 1 7/8"

.
intentionally left blankintentionally left blank
33rd Street Station, Manhattan, NY - August 6, 1919
United States Railroad Administration - during World War I
K. B. Conger, General Manager
Rand McNally
2 3/4" x 1 7/8"
.
33rd Street Station, Manhattan, NY - March 10, 1933
C. D. Emmons, President
Rand McNally
2 3/4" x 1 7/8"
.

.
30 Day Excursion
Church Street Station, Manhattan, NY - March 17, 1915
P. Fisk, President & General Manager
Rand McNally
2 3/4" x 1 7/8"
1/2 Fare
Grove Street Station, NJ - October 14, 1917
P. Fisk, President & General Manager
Rand McNally
2 3/4" x 1 7/8"
.

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intentionally left blankintentionally left blank
Lackawanna Terminal - Hoboken, NJ - December 28, 1914
P. Fisk, President & General Manager
Rand McNally
2 3/4" x 1 7/8"
.

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Good for One Year
19th Street Station, Manhattan, NY
J. J. Fritsch, Comptroller
Rand McNally
2 3/4" x 1 7/8"
33rd Street Station, Manhattan, NY - unoknown date
J. J. Fritsch, Comptroller
Rand McNally
2 3/4" x 1 7/8"
.

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Receipts
.

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Pennsylvania RR Coupon for travel from Newark to Harrison Joint receipt issued by the Pennsylvania Railroad to show that a passenger has paid the extra fare for travel on the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad line.

4 1/16" x 1 3/16"

4 7/8" by 1 3/4"



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Refund Coupons

   Another oddity of the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad fare system was the use of refund coupons.

   The use of this system is best explained by the following New York Times article dated December 25, 1911; which I have highlighted:



New Jersey Issues
.....
Henderson Street / Grove Street Station
.

.
New York Issues
November 11, 1937




Passes

Rand McNally & Company sample - 1946

At some point within 2010 - 2020, a great deal of samples printed by the Rand McNally Company; including passes, tickets and other fiscal items & forms for many transit companies (especially for the New York area)
have surfaced on the market.



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Port Authority Trans Hudson

   In return for the rights to construct the World Trade Center complex on the footprint of the Hudson Terminal, the PANYNJ purchased the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad and this was formalized in January 1962. In April, the PANYNJ organized two wholly owned subsidiaries: The Port Authority Trans-Hudson "PATH" Corporation to operate the former Hudson and Manhattan lines, as well as a second agency to administer to the construction and operation of the World Trade Center, and the leasing of space within.

   Had this subsidiary not been organized, the entire operation of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey agency would have been subject to federal Interstate Commerce Commission regulations. The creation of the PATH Corporation alleviated this and only required the PATH operation to be under the jurisdiction of the ICC.

   In September of that year, PANYNJ formally took over operation of the H&M operation and rolling stock. The PANYNJ immediately began investing in modernizing the operation to the tune of $70,000,000. Adjusted for inflation, this equated to $608,000,000 in 2021.

   162 new cars were also ordered in 1964 to replace the H&M rolling stock, of which most dated back to 1909; with the new cars being delivered in 1965. With now two states funding the operation, PATH literally climbed out of the gutter, allowing commuters to reach lower Manhattan from the "undeclared" suburbs of Western New Jersey.

   But this would not be without trials and tribulations either, with those stories best left for a more comprehensive history by someone else..




Port Authority Trans Hudson - "PATH": 1963 - 1971

   PATH fares were paid with brass tokens beginning in 1963. The PANYNJ ordered 1,000,000 tokens in 1962, and 500,000 in 1967. Ultimately, the token system was discontinued in January 1971, which coincided with the NYCTA issuing their 23mm token. New turnstiles were purchased that were able to take 30 cents in exact change, and automated change making machines eliminated fare agents at low-use stations.
1963

23mm, bronze, slot cut out
Atwood-Coffee 
NY630AQ

two varieties

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.


   What is astonishing, is to learn this refund coupon usage lasted into the PATH operation!
.

.

   This next issue is simply a 10 trip ticket, with primitive magnetic data stripe encoding, in both unused (left) and used (right). These tickets were used in an automated turnstile, where each successive use would chop off the next trip remaining on the left edge of the face, as well as imprint the ticket with a printed code. Upon the tenth trip, the ticket was invalidated.Unfortunately, the meaning or deciphering of printed code is currently unknown.. 
.....
4 15/16" x 1 13/16"







Page 1: Fare Tickets & Employee PassesPage 7: Half Fare Tickets - Sundays / Weekends
Page 2: TokensPage 8: Half Fare Tickets - Senior Citizens & Handicapped
Page 3: Continuing Ride Tickets & Transfers - Rapid TransitPage 9: School / Student / Pupil Reduced Fare & Free Passes
Page 4: Continuing Ride Tickets & Transfers - Surface; Streetcar LinesPage 10: Special Issue Tickets
Page 5: Continuing Ride Tickets & Transfers - Surface; Bus RoutesPage 11: Staten Island Rapid Transit
Page 6: Continuing Ride Tickets; Surface; Add-A-Rideyou are on Page 12: Hudson and Manhattan & Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH)




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 Philip M. Goldstein / George S. Cuhaj
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