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McCloud River Railroad; History: 1895-1900.

McCloud Rails History: Part IV

1920-1940: Roaring Twenties through the Depression

#15 with a log train on a trestle in the Black Fox region north of Bartle.

The Red River Lumber Company was established by a man named Thomas Barlow Walker.  Red River was born in the vast pine forests of Minnesota, and for several years it operated a large sawmill in the town of Akeley, Minnesota.  Mr. Walker could see the imminent end to the timber supply available to him in the area, and in the late 1800’s he sent his sons out west to look for a new home for the company.  After much investigation the family chose the vast forests of northeastern California as the next area of operations for Red River.  Red River set about purchasing timber lands in the area starting about 1894.  At the maximum Red River’s California holdings totaled more than 1.25 million acres.  Red River did not move into the California holdings until 1913, and when it did the company built a new sawmill in the new town of Westwood, CA, located many miles south of McCloud and towards the southern end of the Red River holdings in the area.  

The McCloud River companies reached the western fringe of Red River lands not far east of Bartle.  For many years McCloud logging operations were limited to any further eastward expansion due to the Red River land ownership east of there.  

California-based electricity giant Pacific Gas & Electric entered the scene in the late 1910’s with an ambitious plan to build a series of dams and powerhouses to produce electricity along the Pit River, located about 23 miles south of Bartle.  The McCloud River Railroad at Bartle was the closest railhead to the project area, and the utility was quickly in discussion with the railroad over the best way to get the needed supplies to the construction sites.  The easiest way to get the materials in was to construct a new railroad from Bartle.  The railroad was to be owned by the power company, but built and operated by the McCloud River Railroad under contract.  Construction of the railroad started in early 1921, and by September of that year the line was opened to the first of the powerhouse sites.  The actual project included construction of two large powerhouses, one large dam, power transmission lines, and many miles of pipe.  

The route as it was laid out left the railroad’s mainline just east of Bartle.  The first 4.2 miles were over a lumber company spur leased to the railroad for the project.  An additional 18.8 miles of new railroad were built from the end of the log spur to a point above the community of Peck’s Bridge, where the line split.  One branch followed the Pit River upstream from there to the site of the Pit 1 powerhouse, while the other line went downstream past the site of the Pit 3 dam to the site of the Pit 3 powerhouse.  Most of the line was built over Red River lands, and one of the clauses in the right-of-way agreements specified no common-carrier use of the new railroad.  

The Pit River project consisted of a number of dams and associated powerhouses, with Pit 1 being the farthest project upstream and the numbers increasing as one moved downstream.  Initially the projects were assigned odd numbers only to allow for flexibility in adding more powerhouses later.  Pit 1 project actually consisted of a small dam on the Fall River in the Fall River Valley, with the water piped underneath a small mountain range to the powerhouse, where the water was released into the Pit River.  Pit 3 was located several miles downstream from Pit 1, and it consisted of a large dam holding back a sizeable reservoir (named Lake Britton).  A large pipeline was constructed to move the water several additional miles downstream to the powerhouse.   

The McCloud River Railroad became interested in the possibilities of common-carrier service over the new line, and in 1921 the railroad entered negotiations with PG&E and the Red River to determine if arrangements could be made.  Deals were struck, and the railroad commenced handling revenue freight over the line in addition to the contract operations.  However, the new line did not generate enough new business to keep it in operation after the end of the PG&E operations, and about 1929 the line was abandoned.

Steam locomotive #25 leads a water car and a log train. The McCloud River Railroad purchased six of these large modern prairie type locomotives in the mid-1920's as part of a modernization program. Travis Berryman collection.


As noted above, the eastward expansion of lumber company operations was limited by the ownerships of the Red River Lumber Company and the United States Forest Service.  About 1919 the McCloud River Lumber Company purchased 25,000 acres of timberland from Red River, and a few years later purchased a huge Forest Service timber sale adjacent to the newly acquired lands.  The lumber company immediately started construction of a rail line into the new area from the north.  The new line branched off of the old mainline to McGavic at a point known as Slagger Camp, then circled into the new holdings from the north.  The railroad made its first eastward expansion into the new holdings in 1923, when a branch of the common carrier railroad was built.  The branch left the Bartle-McGavic mainline at a point known as Santa Claus Junction about four miles northeast of Bartle.  The first short portion of the new line to a point known as Car A became part of the McCloud River Railroad, and the line east of there was lumber company trackage.  The lumber company trackage reached a point referred to as Camp 2 (one of several such points known by that name) where a logging camp was established.  This camp was re-named Pondosa camp by the lumber company about 1925.  Extensive railroad yards and a repair shop were established at this location.  

The western terminus of the railroad received a new name in 1922.  The memories of Justin Sisson were by now vague, and the name of the town was changed to Mt. Shasta City by popular vote.  

The lumber company had for many years used mobile logging camps that followed harvest operations.  Camps consisted of portable buildings that remained in one place until that area was logged out, then the camp would be moved to the next area of operations.  The lumber company would traditionally use multiple logging camps at once.  In the late 1920’s the company decided to go to permanently located logging communities.  By this point many of the loggers had families, and a community would be better suited to meeting the needs of the families than the portable camps.  The site selected for the first camp was about eight miles south of Car A along the banks of Bear Creek.  A new railroad line was built by the lumber company from Car A to the site of the new camp, and the railroad was granted trackage rights over the new line.  The new camp was named Pondosa.  The loggers moved in to the camp in late 1927.  To eliminate the name duplication, the Old Pondosa camp was re-named Hambone.  Pondosa was closer to Burney and the Fall River Valley than Bartle, and before long the interchange of freight bound to and from these regions was being handled through Pondosa.  

From the Glen Comstock collection.

The railroad had offered passenger service over the line between Mt. Shasta City and Bartle essentially since the commencement of service.  The first real challenge to the railroad’s grasp on passenger service came from an auto stage line that started offering service between McCloud and Mt. Shasta in 1916.  The railroad responded in 1927 by canceling passenger service west of McCloud in favor of it’s own bus line (which immediately brought a flurry of lawsuits and complaints of illegal competition from the bus line owner).  The railroad bought the bus line out in 1928 and entered the passenger business by highway under a subsidiary, the McCloud Transportation Company.  Passenger trains after that date west of McCloud were run only for special occasions or when the busses could not run.  Passenger traffic east of McCloud continued to be offered for several years afterwards, but by the 1940’s it was essentially dead as well.  

Pondosa did not remain as the only permanent camp for long, as in 1928 the lumber company acquired the White Horse tract, about 80,000 acres of timberlands located primarily in western Modoc County, from the Red River Lumber Company.  Pondosa was closed as the lumber company hurried to tap the new acquisition.  A new railroad was built eastward out of Hambone through some of the areas logged previously to reach the new timber.  One camp (Camp Two) was established and operated for about a year.  The main camp in the new tract was White Horse, which was established between 1929 and 1930.  White Horse became the base of operations for the loggers and logging railroaders, and over the next several years a spiderweb of logging railroad spurs were built in just about all directions from White Horse.  

The Great Northern Railroad completed it’s transcontinental line from the Twin Cities west to the shores of Puget Sound in the latter part of the 1800’s.  The Hill family that built the road long dreamed of extending their line south to California, and through the early 1900’s they attempted to do just that, but found their was blocked at every turn by Edward Henry Harriman, who at that time was in control of both the Southern Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads and had no intention of letting the Great Northern into California.  The Hill family tried coming down through western Oregon, but managed to push a GN subsidiary only as far south as Eugene before they found their way blocked.  In the early 1900’s the family tried a second route east of the Cascades, and the result was one of the last major railroad wars in the western United States as a Hill road and a Harriman road fought each other for passage through the Deschutes River Canyon into central Oregon.  Eventually an agreement was reached that allowed both roads access over the same track, and the community of Bend, OR was reached in 1912.   

The Great Northern remained at Bend until 1926, when it continued it’s southward push towards California.  Klamath Falls was reached in 1927 (primarily over trackage rights obtained across the Southern Pacific between Chemult, OR and Klamath Falls).  In 1930 the GN continued construction south of Klamath Falls towards the area of Bieber, CA, where a connection would be made with the Western Pacific Railroad building north from Keddie, CA.  The GN was anxious to develop revenue along it’s new route, and by this point the end of the White Horse extension of the lumber company railroad was within a few miles of the new GN grade.  A minimum of new construction would give the GN access to the lumber traffic generated by the McCloud mill as well as give the lumber company access to new markets and an improved ability to bargain for rates and services.  The GN was interested, and by the end of 1931 a deal was worked out.  The McCloud River Railroad Company took title to the lumber company trackage between Car A and Hambone, where sufficient room for yards were located.  The lumber company then sold the line east of Hambone to the Great Northern, and the GN built a short connection between Lookout Junction and the former lumber company railroad.  The GN eventually decided not to operate the new line themselves, and they made an arrangement with the McCloud River Railroad to operate the line for them.  The Western Pacific also had trackage rights over the GN line from Nubeiber through Lookout to Hambone, but they never used them.  Consequently most of the traffic over the new line went north and east over the GN.  The lumber company was able to continue to use the new line for their purposes as well.  

Pondosa was re-opened in the mid-1930’s, and logging operations extended south and east from there.  The camp also became home to an independent sawmill in 1930 when Harry Horr moved his sawmill in from the Cayton area.

The Depression did take its toll on both McCloud companies, but both were able to survive.  There were periodic layoffs and slowdowns in all operations, but those who were temporarily un-employed were given free room and board in McCloud until they could be put back to work again.  Most timber companies that survived the Depression could see that the economic storms would not continue forever, and many of these companies did everything they could to retain workers until better times arrived.